Penicillin: Compound Story Finale

Child waking up

“Yea son. Be careful for what you wish for because you are bound to regret some of the things you think you want at the moment,” Dr. Fleming said.

Suddenly, the ceiling lights in the room swung rapidly. Cracks appeared in the ground beneath their feet. Roni got very nervous, but Dr. Fleming kept on talking as if nothing was happening.

“Do you not feel the earthquake?” Roni asked shakily to Dr. Fleming.

“What earthquake? Now, tell me son, what are other physical and chemical properties of penicillin?” questioned Dr. Fleming. Before Roni could answer, the room swirled before him and he felt himself fainting again.

“Honey! Wake up,” Roni heard his grandma’s voice, “you are having a nightmare!” Roni slowly opened his brown eyes and was relieved to see that he was back in home under his blankets. He was even happier to see his grandma looking down at him. He gave her a hug.

“Jeez, that nightmare must have been bad,” his grandma said.

“Grandma, what are other physical and chemical properties of Penicillin?” Roni questioned his grandma.

“Hmm, let’s see. Penicillin is slightly soluble, odorless, and crystalline powder looking. Why?” Roni’s grandma asked.

“No reason,” Roni smiled.

the end. 

Penicillin: Compound Story Part Six

Laboratory materials

“What is Penicillin’s type of bonding?” Dr. Fleming wondered.

“Penicillin acts on bacteria by preventing cell wall formation. Once in the body, it is taken up into bacterial cells. These cells then try to divide and form more cells, which bonds irreversibly to a key enzyme for cell wall production. It is pretty cool actually,” Roni said.

“That does sound extraordinary! So you are basically telling me that this is a life-saving drug,” Dr. Fleming glances at the fungus and asks, “How is this made?”

“Well, penicillin is made from Penicillium mold, which is made in deep fermentation tanks by adding a kind of sugar and other ingredients. But eventually, scientists isolate Penicillin from the fungus.” Roni said as he sat on the couch in the office.

“Whoa, how did you know the answers so suddenly?!” Dr. Fleming said surprised by how fast Roni answered him.

“My grandma would read me my favorite book about Penicillin. It had every fact, and you are even in it!” Roni said happily but then turned sad, “but now I may never read the book again or see my grandma. I should have never wished to go back in time. I wish to go home.”

Penicillin: Compound Story Part Five

Photo of Alexander Fleming

Roni added, “Other names could be penicillin G potassium and penicillin G sodium…”

“What such thing! We can’t be certain about that son, we need to run some preliminary tests,” Dr. Fleming looked at the Roni in amazement.

Oh, wait…I forgot I am in the past! He doesn’t even know it’s called Penicillin. Roni realized to himself. Maybe he could help me go home, though?

“S-sir,” Roni stuttered, “could you possibly help me get home. This may sound crazy, but I come from the year 2020. Right now, I am supposed to be with my grandmother.”

“Oh my, she must be worried sick!” Dr. Fleming concluded, “I am sorry, but I unfortunately cannot bring you home because I have never dealt with a situation like this. But is this substance really called Penicillin?”

Roni sighed with defeat on never coming home, “Yes sir. Excuse me, but I must go home now. Thank you for your time.”

As Roni was about to leave, Dr. Fleming grabs him by the arm and exclaims, “Wait! I have a few more questions about Penicillin. Could you please answer the questions, and then you can leave?”

They sit down on Dr. Fleming’s couch in his office as Dr. Fleming rambles, “What is the molar mass of this compound?”

Roni answered immediately, “It is 334.4 g/mol.”

to be continued…

Penicillin: Compound Story Part Four

Microscopic image of penicillum

When Roni woke up again, he was in a whole new world. Roni was now in the main hall of a rather tall building. He could hear the noises of screams, cries, and joy filling the nearby room. The aroma was still the same though; the air was stuffy and there was a faint undertone of bleach. He started to walk to the main counter where two people were working.

“Hello, what is this place?” Roni questions the woman at the main counter.

She smiles and responds, “Sir, you are at St. Mary’s Hospital. In London.”

LONDON!? This is crazy! Roni thought to himself. Wait, isn’t this the place where Alexander Fleming founded Penicillin? Did I go even further back in time, to 1928?

“Ma’am, is Dr. Fleming here by any chance?” Roni asked.

She replied happily with directions. Once Roni arrived at Dr. Fleming’s office, the door was wide open.

“What such thing is this! This fungus looks like a painter’s brush,” a voice came from inside the room. Taking chances, Roni walked through the doorway, where Dr. Fleming was studying a small petri dish.

“Boy, tell me I am not crazy. It looks to me like this petri dish is dotted with colonies,” he said as he studied it even closer and stated, “except this one area where this blob of mold is growing! I shall call this blob “penicillium” from the Latin word “penicillium’ which means a painter brush!”

to be continued..

Penicillin: Compound Story Part One

Petri dishes with mold

“So Alexander Fleming began sorting through petri dishes on September 3, 1928,” Roni’s grandmother read, “but noticed something unusual on one dish…”

Roni cuts his grandmother off, “Oh I know what happens! A blob of mold was growing!”

She questioned him to see if he actually understood the book, “And what is this blob of mold?”

“Like Pencucucucm notat-thingy,” Roni shifted around in his bed, looking like a blanket monster, “I wish I was there when it happened.”

“Be careful what you wish for,” Roni’s grandmother laughed, “and also it is called Penicillium Notatum, which is capable of killing a wide range of harmful bacteria.” She started to notice Roni slowly drifting off to sleep, so she continued on reading, “such as streptococcus, meningococcus, and the diphtheria bacillus…”

Roni snuggled up closer now to his grandmother, with his brown eyes opening and closing, fighting to stay awake. Roni’s grandmother kept reading his favorite book, talking quieter each page. As he drifted off, his mind swirled into a beautiful new dream.

“Howard Florey, why are you just standing there?!” An unknown man exclaimed at Roni.

Where am I? Roni thought. Am I in a dream? Where is grandma? Who is Howard Florey? Am I Howard Florey? Tons of questions filled Roni’s mind, as he looked around his new environment.

Roni was in a research laboratory. Around him were white-coated scientists who drew transfer pipettes of unknown liquids and moved them to a set of test tubes. While that was going on, the noise of the machinery along the back wall disrupted the silence with its soft, rhythmic clicking. The room smelled like bleach and chemicals that did not mix very well – a smell of which made Roni slightly nauseous. The scientists appeared not to notice this or the annoying background noise, as they were enraptured by their experiments.

As the scientists were working, Roni happened to notice a newspaper lying on an empty lab bench. He quickly walked over and pick it up.

to be continued…

Penicillin: Compound Story Part Three

chemical compound of penicillin

The colleague of Ernst added on to the list, “The percent composition is carbon, carbon, 57.47%; hydrogen, 5.43%; nitrogen, 8.38%; oxygen, 19.14%; sulphur, 9.59%. Also density is 1.43 g mL.”

“The Chemical formula for Penicillin is C16H18N2O4S. Don’t forget to jot that down, Howard,” Ernst said as Roni was rushing to write all the information down.

“Man,” Ernst took off his eye protection as he walked toward the sink, “we really did it. We found something here, boys. After we test this compound on mice, it could potentially treat infections caused by bacteria!”

Roni smiled and said, “Did you know that before Penicillin, many ancient cultures were using moldy food to treat infection without understanding how it worked?” Both men laughed and kept spitting out interesting facts they learned about their newest creation.

While this was all going on, Roni started getting dizzy. Beneath Roni’s feet, the flooring felt soft. Roni dropped the notepad and pencil and then started to move to the edge of the room, hitting into the machines and brushing against the cold white wall.

Can they not see me? Hello, I am fainting! Why can’t I talk? Roni screamed for help, but seemed unable to talk. The men kept laughing and talking in the background.

It was hard to make out the details of the room now as Roni tried to start walking, but he ended up staggering backwards, his mind swirling, and his breaths shortened until he suddenly fell on the floor.

Penicillin: Compound Story Part Two

beaker

Hm, why is this newspaper dated in 1929? Roni thought. Maybe I should ask them how to get home I guess…

“Howard, we just isolated the pure Penicillin from the mold juice!” The unknown man exclaimed at Roni.

“Penicillin? I was just reading about that compound with my grandma!” Roni stated proudly.

The man looked confused though and then laughed, “You are so funny, Howard. Now let’s actually get to work. How about you jot down the physical and chemical properties of this pure Penicillin for further research. Here, grab something to scribble on and I will tell you what to write.” He handed Roni a notepad and pencil.

“But I am not Howard. My name is actually Roni, sir,” Roni stated. Both the men looked at Roni in confusion.

“Hello, Roni. My name is Ernst Chain.” The man with the mold juice said jokingly. Roni realized that it was pointless to convince these men that he is not the Howard they know.

Maybe I look like their Howard. Roni thought. Ernst grabbed gloves and some googles as he looked at the pure penicillin, and did something to it that Roni could not see.

“Jot down that the boiling point is 663.3±55.0 °C at 760 mmHg and the melting point of Penicillin is 214-217 °C.” The man, now identified as Ernst, said.

Miranda Rights Argument Essay

Miranda Warning

The failure to issue a Miranda Warning should lead to not being allowed as evidence in a criminal trial because the trial would then not be impartial due to obtained evidence that was gained unfairly. The Miranda rights state that people have the right to remain silent which originated from the self-incrimination clause of the Fifth Amendment. When this right is not identified in front of the person accused for a crime, the person may have answered questions in front of the police that they did not wish to initially answer. These responses would be unjustifiable in front of the Court due to the violation of their Fifth Amendment rights. In the Supreme Court Case titled, Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), Gideon was charged with felony breaking and entering. When brought to the court, he did not have a lawyer appointed to him and had to represent himself in his own trial. Gideon’s constitutional rights were discarded when he had to lawfully defend himself against a paid attorney. This Supreme Court Case was later used in Miranda v. Arizona when creating what is now known as The Miranda Rule which secures individuals constitutional rights, like the right to have a lawyer from this court case, from being violated. Others may argue that if someone confessed to a conviction or crime before Miranda Rights were stated, they should receive the consequences. This argument fails to consider that any evidence collected or any confessions made prior to being read the Miranda rights are invalid to the court of law. Therefore, the individual in question cannot be charged with or tried for anything before their rights are read and know to them.

Cinderella Versions

The English and the French versions of Cinderella are similar in that the mother is partial to the sister(s) of the main character. Because of this, the main character in both versions is forced to do all the chores around the house every day for her family. But between both versions, the name of the main protagonist differs. In the French version, Cinderella’s name is based on her cleaning near the chimney often and being made fun of by her step family. However, in the English version, Orange’s name was not as degrading. This can be explained as a cultural difference because social status is more important for different cultures. In this case, the French hold social status higher than the English by giving her a more demeaning name. In addition, the English version of this story holds the “Helper” archetype – the inclusion of a character that helps the protagonist. Orange is helped by the fairy when she magically fixes a broken pitcher, adding arms and legs to it to help with other household chores. In conclusion, the English and the French versions of Cinderella are very similar, but also very different in many aspects.

United States v. Lopez Essay

Balance

In the court case “United States v. Lopez,” which was decided on a seven to three vote, the majority of the judges in my class ruled that United States did not exceed their power under the Commerce Clause when Congress passed a law stating that guns could not be within one thousand feet of a school. I personally voted for the United States for several reasons. First, I referenced the court case, “Heart of Atlanta Motel v. U.S.,” which ruled that commerce includes travel from state to state. Therefore, the federal government has the authority to intervene in cases in which people or goods & services are crossing state lines regardless if the merchandise is sold in that state or not. Next, the federal government has authority to protect the safety of its citizenry. Therefore, laws that promote public safety are within the authority of the federal government. Finally, firearms can certainly be categorized as interstate commerce based on “Wickward v. Filburn” in which the Supreme Court decided that farmers could not grow their own personal wheat in excess of a certain amount. In conclusion, I voted for United States in the court case, “United States v. Lopez” because I believe that Congress did not exceed their power when they passed the Gun Free Schools Act under the Commerce Clause.